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Drug Abuse: A Generic Urban Kano Partial Least Square (PLS) Analysis

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Abstract

In urban Kano, drug abuse incidences cut across all sexes and ages taking a different dimension. This makes control measures rather difficult. The aim of this article is to highlight the common reality of the problem so that the concerned community could have a lasting solution. Respondents were purposively selected while questionnaire remained  the  data  collection  tool.  Analysis  was  made  using  Smart2.0M3variance based partial least square structural equation modelling (VB-PLS-SEM). The results indicated that, except for parenting style, all the three independent variables of peer group influence, broken homes, and law enforcement corruption have a direct strong positive  effect  on  personality  maladjustment  as  a  mediator.  However,  all  the  four independent variables; peer group influence, parenting style, broken homes and law enforcement  corruption  possessed  a  direct  positive  effect  on  drug  abuse  as  the dependent   variable.   Meanwhile,   when   personality  maladjustment   mediates   the independent  and  dependent  variables’  relationship,  only  peer  group  influence  and law enforcement corruption maintained an indirect effect. Therefore, to curtail drug abuse menace in urban Kano, parents, religious scholars, security agencies, NGOs, entertainment industries and all community members should design some systemic, effective, collaborative measures that could provide a lasting solution to the problem if the society is to stay safe and future secured.

Keywords: drug abuse, broken home, law enforcement corruption, parenting style, peer group influence, personality maladjustment.

Introduction

The issue of drug abuse is a common global phenomenon in the contemporary times (Siro, 2008). Majority of the crimes being committed today are directly or indirectly connected  to  substance  abuse  (Karofi,  2005).  With  proliferation  of  drug  abuse, criminal  behaviour  and  insecurity  persistence  are  sought  to  have  a  direct  link.  A number of studies such as those of Haladu (2003), Siro (2008), and Mba (2008) were conducted to vindicate this relationship as the behaviour continues to exist overtime. However, the socio-economic development of any society depends on the quality of its population categories which the drug abuse always strives to destroy.

Unfortunately, urban Kano is being affected by drug abuse menace. This is justified as the state occupied the first position in drug/substance abuse for three consecutive years (NDLEA, 2015). However, between November and December of 2015 alone, the   media   release   confirmed   that,   illicit   drugs   worth   1.2   billion   naira   were impounded  by  the  police  in  the  area.  This  was  achieved  through  what  the  police agency termed as operation gida-gida1. The report added that over 95% of the drugs’ consumers   were   Kano   indigenes.   Ironically,   over   95%   of   the   suppliers   were immigrants  or  non-Kano  indigenes.  Also,  more  than  200  suspects  were  arrested during the  raid.  Meanwhile,  Marijuana  alone  from  the  impounded  drugs  cost  over

100 million naira. In another recent NDLEA statistics report, it was indicated that, the study area suffers from a serious drug abuse dilemma. Thus, it showed that, over

11,678.93kg of illicit drugs were impounded between January and November 2015. In addition, 556 people  were arrested by the agency during this period2. The most precarious issue is that, drug abuse behaviour  in urban Kano becomes systemic.  It cuts across all sexes, ages and other human potentialities (Siro, 2014). This scenario is  quite  unfortunate  looking  at  the  cosmopolitan  nature  and  the  economy  of  Kano population.

In general, it can be speculated that, drug abuse incidences affect the socio-economic and political well-being of the study area. In view of this, a study of this kind is very much  desirable.  It  is  therefore  hoped  that,  the  obtained  result  will  influence  the formulation  of  public  policies  vis-a-vis  drug  abuse,  crime  and  security  not  only urban Kano but the state.

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1House by house search

2  Sourced from the National Drugs Law Enforcement Agency, Kano State Headquarters.

Problem Statement

The  persistence  of  drug  abuse  behaviour  in  urban  Kano  becomes  a  universal phenomenon not only among the teeming youth but across all population segments. Preliminary  investigations  revealed  that,  peer  group  influence,  parenting  style, broken homes and law  enforcement corruption are some of the factors responsible for drug abuse menace. Meanwhile, the situation results to individual’s personality maladjustment and subsequently to involvement in drug abuse. However, vindicating this postulation is what formed the basis of this research.

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The  tragic  drug  abuse  element  turns  common  on  daily  basis  despite  the  alleged efforts being made by both public and relevant authorities. To manage the situation, the problem must first be seen as systemic within all public quarters. Hence, there should  be  resuscitation  of  efforts  that  demands  contribution  from  all  spheres  of society  to  make  security  management  a  reality.  The  strategy  must  in  addition incorporate  religious  scholars,  parents,  community  leaders,  NGOs,  entertainment industry,  etc.   The  general  idea is  that,  this  research  will  assist  in  combating drug abuse problem in urban Kano and beyond if well utilised. This is because, most of the previous studies were unable to provide a generic drug abuse analysis comprising these  stated  factors  herein.  Therefore,  this  research  fills  the  gap  created  to  fit  the societal dynamism and reintegration.

Literature Review

Abdullahi (2003) argued that, drugs are mainly substances that are taken to sedate, excite, slim, arouse,  and put to sleep or cure. People usually ingest or inject  those drugs  into  their  bodies  to  achieve  these  goals.  Radda  (2005)  referred  to  drugs  as psychoactive substances while Watt (1997) referred to drugs as substances that affect

the   way   the   body   works   either   physically   or   mentally.   Synchronising   these definitions,  drug  can  be  seen  as  any  substance  other  than  food,  which  due  to  its chemical nature affects the structure and functioning of the human body.

Sullivan  and  Thompson  (1994)  referred  to  drug  abuse  as  the  continued  use  of psychoactive substances at a level that violates approved social practices. Abdullahi (2009) viewed drug abuse as the use of drugs to the extent that interferes with  the health and social function of an individual. In essence, drug abuse may be defined as the arbitrary overdependence or misuse of a particular drug with or without a prior medical diagnosis from a qualified health practitioner. It can also be viewed as the unlawful  overdose  of  drug(s).  Odejide  (2000)  in  a  cautionary presentation  warned that  drug  abusers  who  exhibit  symptoms  of  stress,  anxiety,  depression,  behaviour changes, fatigue and loss or increase in appetite should be treated by medical experts and counsellors to save them from deadly diseases.

Most common Abused Drugs in Nigeria

In  the  Nigerian  context,  the  most  common  types  of  abused  drugs  according  to

NAFDAC (2000) as cited by Oluremi (2012) are categorized as follows:-

i.          Stimulants: Are substances that act directly and stimulate the central nervous system  of  a  human  body.  Users  experience  pleasant  effects  such  as  energy increase   at   the   initial   stage.   The   major   sources   are   cannabis   caffeine substances.

ii.         Hallucinogens: These are drugs that alter the sensory processing unit in the brain.  Thus,  producing  distorted  perceptions,  feeling  of  anxiety,  euphoria, sadness,  inner  joy,  and  other  abnormal  behaviour  are  always  observed.  A typical  example  is  lysergic  acid  diethylamide  (LSD)  and  cannabis.  These

substances   are   considered   as   the   most   powerful   mind-altering   drugs commonly known in the contemporary world.

iii.        Narcotics: These drugs relieve pains, induce sleeping and they are addictive.

They are found in heroin, codeine and opium/opiates.

iv.        Sedatives:  These  drugs  are  among the  most  widely  abused.  This  is  largely due  to  their  power  of  relieving  stress  and  anxiety.  Some  members  of  this drugs’  family  induce  sleep,  ease  tension  and  cause  relaxation.  They  also provide amnesia (temporary loose of memory) for users to be able to forget their  problems.  Their  sources  include  Valium  5/10,  alcohol,  promethazine, chloroform and cannabis.

v.         Inhalants: Consist of volatile solvents that provide euphoria, emotional and perpetual distortion of thoughts to the user. The main sources are glues, spot removers, tube repair, perfumes, gums, rubber solutions to mention but a few.

vi.        Minor   tranquilizers:   This   group   of   drugs   produce   calmness   without bringing drowsiness; they are chiefly derived from Librium, Valium etc.

Causes of Drug Abuse

Haladu  (2003)   gave  some  reasons  as  the  main  causes  of  drug  abuse  in  the contemporary Nigeria.

i.          Experimental Curiosity: Driven out of motivation to unveil the hidden facts about  drugs.  This  is  common  among  adolescents  who  live  in  environments where  drug  abuse  is  neither  restricted  or  carelessness  has  been  attached. Usually, the first experience produces a state of arousal such as happiness and pleasure which motivate further abuse. This is always liable to addiction.

ii.         Peer  Group  Influence:  This  plays  a  major  role  in  pushing  a  number  of adolescents  into  drug  abuse.  Thus,  peer  pressure  is  a  fact  of  teenage  and

youth life. And, it is what the psychologists believed as the most delicate and dangerous age one passes through.

iii.        Lack of parental supervision: Part of parenting style is their carelessness to adequately  and  appropriately  supervise  their  children.  Some  parents  have little  or  no  interaction  with  family  members  to  caution  the  psychological effect and external pressures mounted on their children.

iv.        The  Need  for  Extra  Energy:  This  behaviour  is  most  common  among labourers to work for long hours. The primary motive is to minimize cost and maximize profit for personal economic motives/gains.

v.         Prevention of  Withdrawal symptoms  Occurrence: This is most common among the addicted willing to withdraw from the drug abuse circle. Hence, “withdrawal  symptoms”  arise  when  drug  abuse  is  stopped.  These  include; pain,  anxiety,  excessive  sweating,  convulsion,  delusions  and  death.  These symptoms disallow these addicts to discontinue.

vi.        Availability  of  the  Drugs:  Market  availability  readily  for  abusers  is  the backbone  of  a  habitual  perpetuation  of  drug  abuse  menace.     In  many countries including Nigeria, drug business is the most profitable which make marketers and abusers hard to quit the circle.  [

The Effects of Drug Abuse

A number of effects were established by a number of researches. One of the alluring studies is that of Mba (2008). The author summarized drug abuse negative effects as: i.          Physical   Effects:   Consist   of   liver   cirrhosis,   pancreatic,   peptic   ulcer,

hypertension, neurological disorder, tuberculosis, etc. and

ii.        Mental  Effects:  Largely  consist  of  retardation,  growth  deformity,  nervous system   deficiency,   delayed   motor   development,   amnesia   and   dementia among others.

Also, it has been established that, drugs are widely being abused across the globe. A

1996  UK  survey  reported  in  Watt  (1997)  found  that  over  5  million  people  used cannabis, 1 million amphetamines, 900,000 LSD and over 500,000 ecstasies. This is an indication that, toward the end of 20th  century, a number of countries incur certain economic effects due to drug abuse incidences which appeared scary for any socio- economic development.

[

In  another  study,  it  was  indicated  that,  the  cost  of  impounded  illicit  drugs  range between $108 and $171million. In this course, the most common drug identified was cannabis.  In  addition,  the  socioeconomic  impact  of  the  relationship  between  drugs and crime was determined to have claimed $268.4 million (Fernandez, 2012). This is disastrous  considering  the  dwindling  socio-economic  effects  over  different  time periods that still prevail across nations.

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Sutherland et al., (2015)found that, drug abuse correlates with property and violent offending. In some earlier studies in the 1990s, it was revealed that, Afghanistan has become  a  major  transit  region  for  opiates.  Similarly  Russia  has  become  the  main heroine  domain.  This  serves  as  a  combination  of  conducive  geographical  and political-economic factors that contributed to make the region a fertile ground for the establishment  of  drug  trafficking  activities.  Hence,  political  and  criminal  actors connive in the establishment of favourable routes vis-à-vis crime nexus (De Danieli,

2014)

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Alcohol  as  another  drug  has  potentials  of  being  abused  by  criminal  offenders.  In another  analysis,  the  drug  was  at  best  interpreted  as  a  contributing  factor  to  the commitment  of  crimes  (Zimmerman  &  Benson,  2007).  Similarly,  the  most  three commonly  abused  drugs  associated  with  drugs–crime  connection  in  another  study are heroin, crack and cocaine. This means that, these drugs are established to be the most dangerous in human life considering the modern developments currently being faced(Bennett, Holloway, & Farrington, 2008).

Another result on drug abuse in Vancouver and Montreal indicated that, heroin usage is not connected to perpetration of violent offences. Meanwhile, cannabis play a vital role in this course (Lasnier, Brochu, Boyd, & Fischer, 2010). As a topic  of public concern,  the  general  assumption  is  that  drug  addiction  might  have  some  causal effects on increasing crime rates. The conclusion of the econometric panel analysis indicated  that,  many  drug  users  are  more  likely  to  face  incessant  arrests  and incarcerations (Entorf & Winker, 2008).

In a nutshell, drug abuse is seen as a problem that is causing serious concern to both individuals and government the world over. It is prevalent among adolescents who in most  cases  are  ignorant  about  the  inherent  dangers  in  drug  abuse.  Many  of  the abusers  engage  in  the  act  out  of  frustration,  poverty,  lack  of  parental  supervision, peer  influence,  pleasure,  etc.  However,  with  effective  counselling  programme,  the problems  can  be  tackled  (Oluremi,  2012).  Based  on  this  literature,  the  following hypotheses were developed.

Theoretical Perspective

Many  theories  were  developed  to  explain  societal  social  issues.  In  an  attempt  to indicate  how  peer  influence,  parenting  style,  broken  homes,  and  law  enforcement

corruption  influence  personality  maladjustment  and  subsequently  drug  abuse,  the paper adopts social bond (control) theory developed by Travis Hirschi in 1969. He links the onset of criminality to the weakening of the ties that bind people to society. Hirschi  assumes  that  all  individuals  are  potential  law  violators,  but  they  are  kept under control because they fear that illegal behaviour will damage their relationship with friends, parents, neighbours, teachers and employers. Without these social ties or  bonds,  a  person  is  free  to  commit  criminal  acts:  On  this  basis  therefore,  he identified  four  fundamental  elements  of  social  bond,  weakness  of  which  pushes individuals to deviate.

1.   Attachment: Refers to a person sensitivity to and interest in others. Without this, a person becomes a psychopath and loses ability to relate to the world. Parents, friends, and schools are important institutions which a person should maintain ties with.

2.   Commitment:  Involves  time,  energy,  and  effort  expended  in  conventional line of action. If people build a strong commitment to conventional society, they will be less likely to engage in acts that will jeopardize their hard –won position.   Conversely,   lack   of   commitment   to   conventional   values   may foreshadow  a  condition  in  which  crime  becomes  a  reasonable  behaviour alternative.

3.   Involvement: Heavy involvement in conventional activities leaves little time for  illegal  behaviour.  When  people  become  involved  in  school,  recreation, and  family,  Hirschi  believes  it  insulates  them  from  the  potential  lure  of criminal behaviour, whereas idleness enhances it.

4.   Belief:  People  who  live  in  the  same  social  setting  often  share  a  common moral  belief.  If  these  beliefs  are  absent  or  weakened,  individuals  are  more

likely to participate in anti social or illegal acts.

Looking  at  these  theoretical  principles,  it  can  be  clearly  understood  that,  poor  or absence of attachment, commitment, involvement and belief leave individuals with unguided  effects  of  peer  influence,  parenting  style,  broken  homes  and  allows  law enforcement   corruption   to   dominate.   Consequently,   personality   maladjustment characterises individuals’ life and subsequently to drug   abuse behaviour.

Research Hypotheses

H1: Peer group influence has a direct positive effect on personality maladjustment of drug abuser.

H2:  Parenting  style   has  a  direct  positive   effect  on  drug  abuser’s   personality

maladjustment.

H3:  Broken  homes  have  a  direct  positive  effect  on  drug  abuser’s  personality

maladjustment.

H4:  Law  enforcement  corruption  has  a  direct  positive  effect  on  drug  abuser’s

personality maladjustment.

H5: Personality maladjustment incurred always push individual to drug abuse. H6: Peer group influence has a direct positive effect on individual’s drug abuse. H7: Parenting style has a direct positive effect on a person’s drug abuse.

H8: Broken homes have a direct effect on individual’s drug abuse potentialities.

H9:  Law  enforcement  corruption  has  a  direct  effect  on  individual’s  drug  abuse

status.

H10: Peer group influence has an indirect effect on individual’s drug abuse. H11: Parenting style has an indirect effect on individual’s drug abuse.

H12: Broken homes have an indirect effect on individual’s drug abuse potentialities. H13: Law enforcement corruption has an indirect effect on individual’s drug abuse.

Methodology

The study is purely quantitative. Three hundred and twenty (320) drug abusers were selected   using   purposive   sampling   technique.   This   was   adopted   because;   the sampling frame was not readily available (Chakraborty, 2009). In each of the eight (8) local government areas making up the study area, two (2) drug abuse joints were visited. In each of these joints, twenty (20) respondents were interviewed. Therefore, forty  (40)  respondents  represent  each  of  these  local  governments.  The  mode  of administering the questionnaire consists of both self and researcher’s administrative approaches. This was employed because; the literacy levels of the respondents vary. Table  1  presents  a  summary  of  this  information.  The  analysis  was  done  utilising variance based structural equation modelling smart M2.0 (VB-PLS-SEM) software.

Table 1: Research Sample Description

LGA                                           Joints                                     No. of Respondents

Municipal          i.          Hauren Balago (filin Joker)                            20 ii.   Filin kofar Na’isa                                            20

Gwale                 i.          Mandawari/Dandago/Hausawa                      20 ii.  Kofar Kabuga                                                 20

Dala                   i.          Filin Dalar Gyada                                           20 ii.   Mayanka                                                         20

Fagge                 i.          Riga primary school                                       20 ii.   Kurna primary school                                     20

Nassarawa          i.          Kaura Goje                                                     20 ii.  Kawon Kudu                                                   20

Tarauni               i.          Unguwa Uku                                                   20 ii. Marhaba Cinema                                            20

Kumbotso          i.         Sheka Qarshen Kwalta                                    20 ii.  Fanshekara primary                                         20

Ungogo              i          Ungogo Kasuwa                                              20 ii  Kwanar Fanisau                                               20

Total                                             16                                                    320

Results

The  modelled  studied  variables  comprise  of  peer  group  influence,  parenting  style, broken  homes  and  law  enforcements  corruption  as  the  independent  variables. Personality  maladjustment  is  the  model’s  mediator.  Owing  to  these  collective

factors,  individuals  are  pushed  to  drug  abuse  behaviour  as  the  model’s  dependent

variable.

A PLS Paths Modelling of Urban Kano Drug Abuse Incidence

The   model   comprised   of   measurement   and   the   structural   sub   models.   The measurement model consists of latent and their manifest variables’ relationships. On the  other  hand,  the  structural  model  contains  only  latent  variables’  relationships (Anderson  &  Gerbing,  1988).  Figure  1  represents  the  algorithm  graph  with  PLS parameter estimates.

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Figure1: Algorithm Graph with Parameter Estimates of PLS Analysis

Assessment of the Measurement Model

This evaluation establishes the indicators’ reliability and constructs’ accuracy (Hair, Hult,  Ringle  &  Sarstedt,  2014).  That  is  to  confirm,  items  used  in  measuring  the constructs are reliable and the constructs are valid for further analysis. [

(a)    Reliability Analysis

PLS-SEM prioritized Composite Reliability that depicts individual item’s reliability rather  than  their  collectivity.  Therefore,  items  or  indicators  offer  a  better  variance

estimate  shared  by  respective  manifest  variables.  As  a  thumb  rule,  Composite reliability  coefficients  must  have  a  minimum  of  0.7,  while  on  the  other  hand, individual  indicator  reliability  coefficients  must  have  a  minimum  of   0.5  (0.708)2 (Hair, Hult, Ringle & Sarstedt, 2014). Indicator reliability coefficients are obtained as  the  squared  values  of  the  individual  outer  loading  of  each  indicator.  The presentation  in  Table  2  indicated  that,  both  coefficients  have  complied  with  the thumb rule depicting that, all indicators are reliable.

(b)    Construct Validity

Convergent  and  discriminant  validities  are  examined.  The  former  is  examined through the outer/main loadings of the manifest variables and the average variance extracted  (AVE).  On  the  other hand,  the  latter  is  assessed  by examining  the  cross loadings of the indicators using most commonly utilised method of Fornell-Larcker Criterion.

(b) (i) Convergent Validity

Hair, Hult, Ringle and Sarstedt (2014) suggested 0.7 as the minimum outer loading coefficient.  Considering  the  average  variance  extracted  (AVE)  that  measures  the amount of variance captured by the indicators relative to the measurement error, its coefficients  must  be  0.50  (0.7082)  or  higher.  The  presentation  in  Table  2  portrays that,  all  outer  loadings  and  AVE  coefficients  achieved  the  minimum  coefficient requirement across all scholarly arguments.

[

                    Table. 2: Parameter Estimates  of the Measurement Model

  LV           MV      Main Loading         IR            CR          CA                AVE            BRH        brh2             0.789            0.623         0.834       0.722              0.626

brh4             0.803            0.645

brh5             0.780            0.608

DRA       dra1             0.809            0.809         0.873       0.806              0.634 dra2             0.706            0.500

dra3             0.858            0.736 dra4             0.804            0.646

LEC        lec3              0.766            0.587         0.806       0.529              0.676 lec4              0.875            0.766

PGI          pgi1             0.923            0.852         0.872       0.714              0.773 pgi4             0.833            0.694

PRS         prs2             0.888            0.789         0.812       0.551              0.685 prs3   0.763            0.582

PSM        psm3            0.745            0.555         0.904       0.836              0.760 psm4 0.941            0.885

psm5            0.917            0.841

LV  =  latent  variable,  MV=  manifest  variable,  IR  =  indicator  reliability,  CR  =

composite reliability, CA = Cronbach Alpha, AVE = average variance extracted

(b) (ii) Discriminant Validity

This implies that, a construct is unique and captures phenomena not represented by other varying constructs in the model. To achieve discriminant validity, the square root  of  the  AVE  of  each  construct  should  be  higher  than  the  construct’s  highest correlation with any other construct in the model. Therefore, the AVE square roots are compared with the latent variables’ correlation coefficients. The figures in bold in Table 3 (AVE square roots) are all greater than each of the coefficients on which they  have  been  placed.  This  indicates  that,  discriminant  validity  has  been  fully achieved  (Hair,  Hult,  Ringle  and  Sarstedt,  2014).  Therefore,  all  the  constructs  are proved valid for further analysis.

                  Table.3: Discriminant Validity: Fornell-Larcker Criterion

                  BRH        DRA         LEC         PGI           PRS                   PSM                BRH       0.791

DRA       0.195        0.796

LEC        0.129        0.337       0.822

PGI         0.161        0.215       0.019        0.879

PRS        0.067        0.221       0.264       -0.081       0.828

PSM       0.156        0.280       0.202        0.159       0.100                  0.872

Diagonals  (in  bold)  represent  square  roots  of  AVE  while  off  diagonals  represent correlations. BRH = Broken homes, DRA = Drug Abuse, LEC = law enforcement corruption, PGI = Peer group influence, PRS = Parenting style, PSM = Personality maladjustment.

Assessment of the Structural Model

Four  issues  are  evaluated;  path  coefficient  (β);  coefficient  of  determination  (R2);

effect size (�2) and predictive relevance (�2).

(a)   Structural Model Paths Coefficients for Hypotheses Testing

These consist of direct and indirect effects between the latent variables in the model. Urbach  and  Ahlemann  (2010)  argued  that,  paths  coefficients  should  exceed  0.1  to account for a strong impact within the model. As such, the significance levels were set at p< .10 with critical value 1.65 (significance level = 10%), p< .05 with critical value  1.96  (significance  level  =  5%)  and  also,  p<  .01  with  critical  value  2.57 (significance level = 1%). The confidence levels are therefore, 90%, 95% and 99% respectively. The statistical details of both direct and indirect effects are contained in Tables 4 and 5, while the bootstrapping graph effect is presented in Figure 2.

Figure 2: A 5000 sample bootstrap effect graph

(a) (i) Direct Effects

This  indicates  a  direct  relationship  between  the  independent,  mediating  and  the dependent  variables  in  the  model.  As  depicted  in  figure  2  above,  the  regression explained  the  effects  of  independent  to  mediating,  mediating  to  dependent  and independent to dependent variables. Table 4 shows that, peer group influence (PGI), has a direct positive effect on personality maladjustment (PSM) (β = 0.144, p< .01, t

=   2.620).   Parenting   style   (PRS)   does   not   have   any   effect   on   personality maladjustment  (PSM)  (β  =  0.059,  p<  .10,  =  0.947).  Broken  homes  (BRH)  has  a direct  positive  effect  on  personality  maladjustment  (PSM)  (β  =  0.107,  p<  .05,  =

1.997). Law enforcement corruption (LEC) has a direct positive effect on personality maladjustment (PSM) (β = 0.170, p< .01, t = 2.689). Personality maladjustment as a mediator  has  a  direct  positive  effect  on  drug  abuse  (β  =  0.171,  p<  .01,  =  3.103). Therefore, H1, H3, H4 and H5 are strongly supported while H2 is not.

Similarly,  peer  group  influence  (PGI),  has  a  direct  positive  effect  on  drug  abuse (DRA) (β = 0.179, p< .01, t = 3.917). Parenting style (PRS) has a direct effect on drug abuse (DRA) (β = 0.147, p< .01, t = 2.597).  Broken homes (BRH) has a direct effect on drug abuse (DRA) (β  = 0.098, p< .10, t = 1.881).  Law  enforcement  corruption (LEC)  has  a  direct  positive  effect  on  drug  abuse  (DRA)  (β  =  0.247,  p<  .01,  =

3.796).Hence, H6, H7, H8 are strongly supported while H9 is weakly supported.

             Table.4: Direct Effect for One tail Hypotheses Testing                  

  Hyp     Path                         Beta         SE       p value     t value        Decision             H1       PGI -> PSM            0.144    0.055       0.005      2.620***    Supported

H2      PRS -> PSM           0.059    0.063       0.172      0.947(ns)    Not supported

H3      BRH -> PSM          0.107    0.054       0.023      1.997**      Supported H4      LEC -> PSM           0.170    0.063       0.004      2.689***    Supported H5      PSM -> DRA          0.171    0.055       0.001      3.103***    Supported H6      PGI -> DRA            0.179    0.046       0.000      3.917***    Supported H7      PRS -> DRA           0.147    0.056       0.005      2.597***    Supported H8      BRH -> DRA          0.098    0.052       0.030      1.881*        Supported H9      LEC -> DRA          0.247    0.065       0.000      3.796***    Supported

Beta  =  regression  weight,  SE  =  standard  error,  values  are  computed  through bootstrapping  standard  procedure  of  5000  sub  samples  and  320  cases,  values obtained in excel “TDIST(t value;df;tails)” significance at *p < .10, **p < .05, ***p

< .01.

(a) (ii) Indirect Effects

To establish an indirect relationship, Baron and Kenny (1986) argued:

i.          The   predictor   (independent)   variable   (X)   must   have   effect   on   the mediating variable (M).

ii.         The predictor (independent) variable (X) must also significantly influence the criterion variable (Y).

iii.        The mediator (M) must significantly influence the criterion (dependent) variable (Y) when predictor (independent) variable (X) is also included in the regression equation.

McKinnon,  (2008)  added  that,  the  path  coefficients  shrunk  when  a  mediator  is introduced between the predictor (independent) and criterion (dependent) variables.

That is why, all the Beta (β) indirect coefficients in Table 5 are lower compared with the direct paths’ in Table 4.   Thus, the presentation in Table 6 indicates that, peer group influence (PGI) has an indirect effect on drug abuse (DRA) (β = 0.025, p< .10, t = 1.894). Parenting style (PRS) does not possess any indirect effect on drug abuse (DRA)  (β  =  0.010,  p<  .10,  =  0.923).  Also,  broken  homes  (BRH)  indicates  no indirect effect on drug abuse (DRA) (β = 0.018, p< .10, t = 1.530). However, law enforcement  corruption  (LEC)  has  an  indirect  effect  on  drug  abuse  (DRA)  (β  =

0.029, p< .10, t = 1.938).Thus, H10 and H13 are supported while H111 and H12 are

not.

[

           Table. 5: Indirect Effect for Two tail Hypotheses Testing

  Hyp                 Path                  Beta        SE       p value     t value      Decision              H10   PGI -> PSM->DRA     0.025     0.013       0.059      1.894*      Supported

H11    PRS ->PSM->DRA      0.010     0.011       0.356      0.923        Not Supported

H12    BRH->PSM->DRA      0.018     0.012       0.127      1.530        Not Supported

H13    LEC ->PSM->DRA     0.029     0.015       0.054      1.938*      Supported

Beta  =  regression  weight,  SE  =  standard  error,  values  are  computed  through bootstrapping  standard  procedure  of  5000  sub  samples  and  320  cases,  values obtained in excel “TDIST(t value;df;tails)” significance at *p < .10.

(b)    Coefficient of Determination (�2)

This is a measure of model’s predictive accuracy. It represents the exogenous latent variables’  combined  effects  on  the  endogenous  latent  variable(s).  There  is  no specified  rule  for  its  acceptability  as  lower  �2    values  make  substantial  impact especially in social science researches (Hair, Hult, Ringle & Sarstedt, 2014). In the structural  model  as  presented  in  figure  1  above,  three  exogenous  variables;  peer group influence, broken  homes and law enforcement corruption explained 8.0% of variance    in    personality    maladjustment.    On    the    other    hand,    personality maladjustment,   peer   group   influence,   parenting   style,   broken   homes   and   law enforcement corruption explained 22.1% variance in drug abuse.

(c)    Effect Size (𝒇2)

The  substantive  impact  of  exogenous  construct  on  the  endogenous  constructs  is measured by means of Cohen’s   (�2)  formula when the former is omitted from the model (Cohen, 1988). Effect size is substantiated by the following formula.

[�2 𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑙�𝑠𝑖�� −  �2 �𝑥𝑐𝑙�𝑠𝑖��]

[1 − �2 𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑙�𝑠𝑖��]

Where;

R2Inclusive  =  Variance  explained  coefficient  when  the  variable  is  included  in  the model.

R2Exclusive = Variance explained coefficient when the variable is excluded

1 = constant

In this analysis, five effect sizes were computed; four independent and one mediating variables’   effects   sizes.   Chin   (2010),   argued   that,   in   Social   Science   oriented researches,  2%  effect  sizes  are  small  but  acceptable,  5-10%  moderate,  while  11% and  above  are  substantial.  The effect  sizes  are  presented  in  Table  6.  It  consists  of three small, one weak and one moderate effect.

                         Table. 6: Effect Size                               

                          2                                              2                        Effect (� 2 )                    Size                                                                                                  

Variable                  �𝑖𝑛�𝑙𝑢���

��𝑥�𝑙𝑢���

PGI                      0.221                   0.192                 0.037             Small

PRS                      0.221                   0.202                 0.024             Small BRH                     0.221                   0.212                 0.012             Weak LEC                     0.221                   0.167                 0.069             moderate PSM*                   0.221                   0.195                 0.033             moderate

*represents the mediation effect size in the model

(d)   Predictive Relevance

Stone (1974) and Geisser (1975) argued that, this accurately predicts the data points of  indicators  in  reflective  measurement  models  of  endogenous  constructs.  Cross- Validated  Redundancy  is  used.  It  omits  every  dth  data  point  in  the  construct‘s indicators and estimates the parameters with the remaining data points. The omission distance D is chosen between 5 and 10 so that the number of observations used in the

model  estimation  divided  by  D  is  not  an  integer  (Hair,  Hult,  Ringle  &  Sarstedt,

2014).  In this study, nine was chosen. Following thumb rule, �2  values must be > 0. This information is presented in Table 7.

Table. 7: Predictive Relevance (�𝟐)

Endogenous variables

Number of Rounds      Personality Maladjustment                  Drug Abuse

Case 1                                 0.103                                         0.193

Case 2                                 0.056                                         0.113

Case 3                                 0.082                                         0.142

Case 4                                 0.017                                         0.149

Case 5                                 0.044                                         0.129

Case 6                                 0.065                                         0.057

Case 7

Case 8

Case 9

0.062

0.031

0.038

0.061

0.155

0.143

*All cases were obtained by 1- SSE/SSO using blindfolding technique. SSE = sum of squared errors.

SSO = sum of squared observations.

Discussion

From these analyses, it is evident that, broken homes, peer group influence, and law enforcement corruption strongly influence personality maladjustment in drug abuser. That is to say, if divorces occur in various families, if children join bad company, and  if  security  system  becomes  corrupt,  a  number  of  adolescence  fall  victims  of abnormal personality favourable for drug abuse effects. On the other hand, parenting style  has  less  to  do  with  distorting  individual  personality.  Meanwhile,  personality maladjustment when occurred in individual strongly determines how he/she falls into drug abuse.

Likewise,  peer  group  influence,  parenting  style  and  law  enforcement  corruption strongly push individuals to drug abuse while the effect of broken homes is not. That is  to  say,  broken  homes  cause  personality maladjustment  but  weak  in  resulting  to drug  abuse  behaviour.  Although  the  result  does  not  indicate  relationship  between

parenting  style  and  personality  maladjustment,  individuals  directly  fall  into  drug abuse  due  to  poor  parenting  styles  adopted  in  the  family.  In  addition,  as  law enforcement corruption persists, its effects on the security system may lead to drug abuse  proliferation.  Building  upon  the  previous  literature  on  drug  abuse  causes (Haladu, 2003), its physical and mental effects (Mba, 2008) or its prevalence among adolescence  (Oluremi,  2012),  the  current  analyses  added  literature  on  a  factorial effects/relationships  among  other  things  which  have  not  been  covered  in  the  past studies.  Apart  from  opening  ways  for  further  scholarly  explorations,  the  study  is sought  to  influence  effective  public  management  policies  vis-à-vis  drug  abuse disaster affecting not only urban Kano but the larger population at both national and international levels.

Conclusion

Many  issues  were  highlighted  in  this  research.  It  has  now  been  established  that, urban Kano drug abuse menace persists across periods due to influence of numerous factors. It is vindicated that, the presently utilised management policies are weak and ineffective.  The  situation  could  be  explained  by  weak  and  ineffective  social  ties within  the  population.  The  lackadaisical  attitude  is  argued  to  be  multifaceted involving  community  members  and  relevant   authorities.   Therefore,  to  achieve maximum success needed in this trend, additional strategies should be put in place to ameliorate  the  current  dilemma  amidst  the  public.  Thus,  parents,  religious  leaders, media  houses,  entertainment  industry,  other  community members  and  NGOs  must blend  together  to  make  this  dream  a  reality.  This  should  be  done  through  the provision  of  an  effective  management  of  drug  abuse  situation  which  currently disturbs the public.

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By
Ali Ado Siro aasiro2003@yahoo.com aasiro74@gmail.com
Department of Criminology and Security Studies, Federal University Dutse, P.M.B.
7156, Jigawa State, Nigeria.

edited by Bappi Kabir

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