Most of the world’s development strategies largely depend on the youth. This societal segment is believed to assist in producing sustained economy, social justice and stable democracy of a nation. It is therefore very important if the society could produce qualitative youth to make these a reality. The thrust of this research is to understand the relationship between drug abuse among the youth and political thuggery in Kano Metropolis with a view to proffer solutions to the problem.Youth were interviewed from some selected drug abuse joints using questionnaire. Also, some drug abuse specialists were contacted to generate relevant information. Majority of the youth interviewed were at their tender ages of inducing their peers and involve in political thuggery that calls for rivalry, killings, injuries, opposition clashes etc.The data indicate that majority of the drug abusers are employed, although economic factors suchas profit maximization encourage drug abuse habit among them. Lack of higher educational qualifications is another factor that pushes the youth into drug abuse and subsequently to politically related crimes. Similarly, political thuggery is a factor responsible for drug abuse among the youth in the study area.The study concludes that in order to attain a virile state of political integration, parents should monitor their children’s movements and the company they keep; marital disputes should be avoided by the couples themselves; leaders should stop using the youth in achieving their personal political interests; and
religious leaders should be more involved in the youth’s upbringing.
Key words: Drug Abuse, Political thuggery, Kano Metropolis, Youth, Resource management.
Youth are believed to be the most valuable asset for engendering any societal development. They are the engines and pillars upon which every human society depends. Human history indicated how the youth served to depend and develop
© Copyright 2014 the authors. 144
their various societies, which always promote and give to the society economic balance, political stability and social justice. Gessel (1956) in Radda (2005) refers to youth as the young people whose years fall between 10 and 16. The report of the Political Bureau (1997) in Abdullahi (2003) classified youth as those between 6-30 years. This latter classification conforms to the formal education years, tampering with which may endanger the youth’s life and subsequently the society at large. The vision 2010 report defined youth as persons aged between 12-30 years. On the other hand, Abdullahi (1982) in Abdullahi (2003) defined the youth as any person in the period between early childhood and old age. These few classifications show the importance of youth to the survival and progress of their respective societies. This is because youth contribute much towards social, economic, and political developments and defence of their societies.
STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM AND OBJECTIVE
According to 2006 population census figure, Kano State is placed 1st among the thirty six states of the federation having over 9.3 million people. Out of this number, 2,163,225 of the people live in the Metropolis. Youth are termed “as the active category from which so much is expected to achieve the societal goals like economic prosperity, political stability and social justice. Drug abuse seems to be a major problem that affects their human creativity, mental capability and productive human potentials. Other problems linked to drug abuse and dependence includes reckless driving, traffic violation, inducing fear and insecurity to the public etc. (Madden, 1984). This usage reflects the blanket meaning of drug abuse connoting medical or social patterns within a given socio- cultural environment (Garba, 2003). In their study, Abdullahi and Haruna (1992) in Abdullahi (2003) found out that, 77% of the respondents that abused drugs did it to work hard and become materially successful or to be able to forget their problems. Their findings indicate the existence of drug abuse and related incidences in Kano Metropolis.
From January 2003 – November 2008, NDLEA record, Kano office, shows that over 1528 youth were arrested by the Agency for drug abuse. Their ages ranged between 15-33 years. On the same vein, the record of Dawanau psychiatric clinic
indicated that from January – November 2008, over 9,799 mental cases were reported to the hospital. Out of this figure, 6,365 (64.9 percent) cases were youth from Kano Metropolis. Over 5,103 (80 per cent) of this figure were drug induced patients (D.I.Ps.). Subsequently, 4,791(93.9 per cent) were males. Direct involvement of the youth in substance abuse and political thuggery in Kano Metropolis is what proves the indolence nature and hopeless future of the community. The major objective of this paper therefore,is to examine the relationship of drug abuse among the youth and their involvement in political thuggery in Kano Metropolis.
1.1: Some Drugs and their Effects:
DRUG STREET NAME(S) MODEOF ADMINISTRATION
Cocaine Coke, Snow, Rock, Coco, Crack, Speed,pee, Columbian gold
Opium Brown sugar, Stuff, Smark,
Sniffing, Snorting, inhaling,
Injecting, Ingesting, Swallowed
Hallucination, Diarrhoea, Nausea, Insomnia and Influenza
Strong and quick cure of illness different from normality
Heroin Thai white Smoking, Injecting, fumes absorption
Euphoria(false feeling), Physical and Psychological imbalance
Cannabis Marijuana, Pot, Gra, Hashish, Charas, Indian hemp, Ganja, Ganye, Wiwi, Chaku, and Dope
Source: (NDLEA Report, 1998).
Wrapped and smoked (alone or in tobacco’s mixture). Also chewed or tea made
A psychogenic substance (producing a psychotic state when taken in a high dose, false sensory perceptions, Delusions, Drowsiness or Coma.
Conceptual Explanations of Drug and Drug Abuse
Drug: Scientifically, drug is defined as a substance that affects the function of living cells used in medicine to diagnose, cure, or prevent the occurrence of diseases and disorders. Chafetz (1972) cited in Joseph (1980) defined drug as any substance, which chemically alters the structure or function of a living organism. Sociologically, drug is any habit-forming substance that directly affects the brain or the body function, like mood, perception or consciousness that has a potential for misuse and
may be harmful to the user or to society. Folawiyo (1998) sees drug in a social sense as any substance that carries negative connotation from the public for its power to influence body action different from the usual way of life.
The public in Kano Metropolis disregard those substances with this power of influencing body action, for they (drugs) destabilize an important pillar (youth) which in turn hinders progress. According to Abdullahi (2003), drug is mainly taken to sedate, excite, slim, arouse, put to sleep or cure. People usually ingest or inject those drugs into their bodies to achieve these goals. Radda (2005) referred to drugs as psychoactive substances while Watt (1997) refers to drug as a substance that affects the way the body works either physically or mentally. Purposely for this study, drug can be seen as any substance other than food, which due to its chemical nature affects the structure or functioning of a living organism.
Drug Abuse: Sullivan and Thompson (1994) refer to drug abuse as the continued use of psychoactive substances at a level that violates approved social practices. Typically, use of a substance meets social disapproval when it has negative consequences for people’s health, endangers their relationships with other people or is threatening to others in society. Although, people believed that, the substance with these consequences can produce social disapproval; drugs are now widely abused especially across the developed world. A recent survey in UK of 1996 reported in Watt (1997) found that over 5 million people used cannabis, 1 million amphetamines, 900,000 LSD and over 500,000 ecstasies1. In Kano Metropolis, people socially disregard the abuse of drugs for it threatens people’s social relationship and security as it relates to politics in the state.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL FRAME
Theonye (2004) defined drug abuse principally as the application of drugs for purposes other than of which they are produced. This meaning indicates clearly how drugs like Benylin, Codeine, Valium 5/10 and Roche that are meant to cure cough,
1 Ecstasies arealso known as E. doves and MDMA- A Synthetic drug with stimulant and hallucinogenic effects which comes in tablet form.
put to sleep or common headache and pain are used excessively to produce result different from the stated. This practice appears to be a common social problem amidst youth in urban setting similar to that of Kano Metropolis. Lauer (1992) refers to drug abuse as the improper use of drugs to the degree that the consequences are defined as detrimental to the user or to the society due to behaviour that deviates from accepted norms.
Radda (2005) believed that, drug abuse is the excessive and persistent use usually by self-administration, of any drug without due regard for accepted practice. The vast arrays of drugs are agents that act on the central nervous system to engender significant effects on mood, social feelings and behaviour. Therefore, the general definition of drug abuse encompasses the habitual use of drugs by laymen like laxatives, pain relievers and vitamins.
Causes of Drug Abuse among the Youth
Many factors are responsible for drug abuse in the world today. Researches were conducted to indicate how these factors influence drug abuse in the society. In a study conducted in Dawanau rehabilitation centre by Abdullahi (1991b) cited in Abdullahi (2003), 77% of the respondents said they either abuse drug to work hard so that they can become materially successful or to forget about their problems. To confirm this further, it was indicated in another work by the same author in Kano Metropolis (2003) that a commercial motor cyclist stated:
If I take Gadagi, I feel strong and fearless, I find it much easier to manoeuvre any traffic congestion in order to quickly drop my passenger and be paid within a short time and wait for another passenger. . . (Abdullahi 2003:15)
Findings of Garba (2005) found that some people abuse different drugs for different reasons. These vary in terms of drug, person or occasion, although some people may have more than one reason for abuse. These reasons include curiosity towards achieving a particular goal such as economic, political or otherwise. Also, search for pleasure, social pressure (which may come within or outside one’s social group such as family). One may even continue to abuse drugs for tension relief or escape. Other
factors that influence the abuse of drugs among the community youth include mass media communication that encompasses radio, television, magazines and newspapers.
Additionally, a study on drug abuse by Abdullahi and Haruna (1991a) in Abdullahi (2003) showed that inmates at Dawanau Rehabilitation Centre Kano learned the habit of drug abuse from friends, workmates and other associates. In their study on drug abuse among students of universities of Nairobi, Muliro and Kisumu Day Secondary School, Ngesul, Ndiku and Masese (2008), found that the interest and expectation of the peer groups have an important bearing on whether or not a person will try dependence producing drugs. A friend or peer group is likely to be the source of iinformation for drug users about the availability of drugs and their allegeable effects.
Some of the reasons that are responsible for drugs use and abuse especially among the youth include, peer influence, search for pleasure, curiosity toward success in a modern competitive world, stress and anxiety, party politics and family disintegration effects (Odiase, 1980). Other socio-economic factors are profit maximization by those who sell the drugs, rapid urbanization process, bribery and corruption, general indiscipline in the society, ineffective social control measures by the community members and authorities concerned, etc (Olatunde, 1979). Students take drugs to prevent themselves from sleeping in the night to read very hard and pass examinations with flying colours. Trucks and bus drivers, conductors, tailors, cart- pushers, head -loaders (‘Yandako) etc. consume and become addicted to drugs to enable them work hard and become materially successful (Abdullahi, 2003).
In his comparative study of the political economy of crime in United States and Nigeria, Chambliss in Taylor, Walton and Young (1975) revealed that, by
1967, Seattle and Las Vegas in United States and Ibadan and Lagos in Nigeria all had larger populations. They also possess common social problems. Crimes such as prostitution, gambling, alcohol and drugs available for abuse gain ready markets in these cities. The findings also indicate that drug distribution which flourish in the lower- class centre of the cities continue to exist. This is being done with the
compliance, encouragement and co-operation of the major political and law enforcement officials in the cities. According to these findings, there was in fact a common symbiotic relationship between the law enforcement political organization of these four cities and a group of local (as distinct from national) men who control the distribution of vices. Hausas, who were immigrants in Ibadan, Nigeria, were believed to have professional criminals.
The Hausas’ leadership is strong that was said to pay much to police whenever their member is in difficulty. This shows how cordial a relationship being established between those criminals such as drug addicts, their superiors and law enforcement agents as far back as 1967. More interestingly, the finding touched on Hausas who are presently the predominant tribe in Kano Metropolis. Hence, tendency of criminal- law custodian relationship can be put in place. Relating these findings with Kano Metropolis urban settings, youth who engage in drug abuse may have a direct relationship with the law enforcement agents. Such authorities like the Police, NDLEA, NAFDAC and DMA could allow the problem to continue in as much as they benefit financially through collecting bribe from the drug abusers.
The findings of Akindele (1974) and Asuni (1974) showed that more recent clinical observations indicated that approximately 70% of cases of toxic psychosis as a result of drug abuse are from wealthy homes. By way of evaluation, Borodo (2005) observed that, although globally varied factors are responsible for the prevalence of substance/drug abuse, peculiar to our Nigerian society (Kano Metropolis in particular) include; reduced community participation, less family and parental cohesion and care, increasing number of unemployed youth with inadequate Islamic and Western education, abundance of illicit substances/drugs in the society due to laxity of relevant authorities in checking their circulations, increasing poverty in the society, and so on.
Consequences of Drug Abuse
Garba (2005) believes that drugs affect all sectors of society in all countries. In particular, drug abuse affects the freedom and development of young people, the world’s most valuable asset. Joseph (1980) observed that, young people have tended
to use drugs more than adults and with increasing frequency. As youth deepen into drug abuse, their productive human potentials are threatened. This might spread to the general society producing wider social, cultural, political and economic damages. Borodo (2005) observed that consequences of drug abuse in our society today particularly in Kano Metropolis, consist of; increasing number of youth becoming lunatics in the streets with increasing burden on government as well as increased cases of crimes and other societal ills. Report shows that over 82,000Kg of Indian hemp was impounded by the agency between January and August this year, (NDLEA, 2008).. Drug abuse serves as one of the avenues through which people manoeuvre their ways to achieve economic, educational and even political successes. Many acts of violence, physical assaults, rape or murder are generally linked to substance abuse.
Substance abuse…. is the worst of plagues. It knows no season and no boundaries. No mosquito will be identified, no microbe isolated, no vaccine invented to end its reign. It is a pestilence with all the classic trappings of social disruption, suffering and death-and one terrible defining difference, we invite it to kill, and maim and diminish us (www.drugscope.org 5thMay, 2007).
Rational Choice Theory
According to this approach, law-violating behaviour occurs when an offender decides to risk breaking the law after considering both personal factors (such as the need for money, revenge, thrills, and entertainment) and situational factors (how well a target is protected and the efficiency of the local police force). Before choosing to commit a crime, the reasoning criminal evaluates the risks of apprehension, the seriousness of expected punishment, the potential value of the criminal enterprise, and his or her immediate need for criminal gain. Conversely, the decision to forgo crime may be based on the criminal’s perception that the economic benefits are no longer there or that the risks of apprehension is too great (Bayer, 1981). On this basis, drug abusers in Kano Metropolis might abuse drugs purposely for financial gain, to take revenge against a rival party or for a thrill. Engagement in drug abuse
is decided by calculating the most possible outcome of the action. This may be a benefit, escape and possible apprehension. It can be speculated therefore, youth are being supplied with substances and weapons to commit offences in favour of their political masters who in turn stand for them against any punishment by the law. This theory is adopted to guide the study.
This consists of all the youth who abuse drugs in Kano Metropolis that were available during the study. Their age category ranges between 12 and 44. Kano Metropolis comprises of Dala, Municipal, Nassarawa, Gwale, Tarauni, and Fagge Local Government Areas.
Sample Size and Sampling Procedure
This research sampled a total of 134 respondents. A pilot study revealed that, in each of the six Local Government Areas, at least 40 drug abuse joints were available, making a total of 240 drug abuse joints in the whole area of Kano Metropolis. On this basis, two (2) social settings were selected from each of the six (6) Local Government Areas using purposive sampling procedure .Then; ten (10) respondents from each of the selected social settings were drawn using accidental or availability sampling procedure. Therefore, 12 drug abuse joints were sampled, using which 120 respondents were obtained. This formed the first part of the sample. Other relevant sources of data utilized for the study, include; Dawanau psychiatric hospital, Dorayi Rehabilitation Center, National Drugs Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA), National Agency for Food, Drugs, Administration and Control (NAFDAC), Drugs Management Agency (DMA) and two recognized Hospitals: City general Hospital (Murtala); and Nassarawa Hospital. In each of these seven (7) organizations, two (2) respondents were contacted making a total of fourteen (14) respondents. This formed the second part of the sample. The sample size of the study therefore is one hundred and thirty (134) respondents.
Questionnaire was used to generate quantitative data from the drug abuse selected joints using research assistants. The mode of administering the questionnaire is researcher’s-administrative approach. The questionnaire schedule contained both closed and open-ended questions that were administered on youth that abuse the drugs and engage in political thuggery. In-depth interview was adopted in generating qualitative data from the government officials and professionals from relevant sources such as Dawanau Psychiatric Hospital, Murtala and Nassarawa Hospitals, NDLEA andDorayi Rehabilitation Center.
DISCUSSION OF RESEARCH FINDINGS
Age of the Respondents
The data indicates that respondents between 15 – 29 years are 71.6 percent of the distribution. Those between 30-44 years are 17.2 percent, while those below
14 years are 11.2 percent. This shows that majority of the youth that were involved in drug abuse in Kano metropolis are within the range of 15-29 years. It symbolizes the presence of moral decay among the youth on whom the brighter future of the society depends. Similarly, the youth’s potentials in boosting the standards and economic prosperity of the society are being defeated. That is why, it is vital and a challenging issue for youth to be handled with care for the sake of societal development.
This finding differs from the survey finding of NDLEA (1991), which revealed that ‘‘…. Children begin to abuse drugs as early as 11-16 years….’’ But the finding is in harmony with what the same agency had in a compiled record of mental health institutions of Nigeria in the same year, which states that ‘‘….The drug abuse patients almost fall within the age bracket of 21-30 years….”. At the same time, similar results were found by Odejide and Sanda (1976) and Anumonye (1980) who found that ‘‘….Young adults between 21 and 25 years of age and children of school age were all reported to have abused drugs ….’’.
Sex of the Respondents
The data shows that males constituted 90.5 per cent, while only 9.5 per cent females are found to be involved in drug abuse. This shows that more males abuse drugs than females. It is not surprising considering the cultural and traditional inhibitions that made males more mobile than females. Another reason is that, by their nature, males engage in highly dangerous activities than their female counterparts. This trend puts the societal future at risk as norms and values are not being obeyed by the male population who are supposed to be providers for households. This is discouraging because if able-bodied men do not respect laws, quality of society is threatened. In accordance with the above, a social worker interviewed in Dorayi Rehabilitation Center mentioned:
As you can see, majority of the inmates here are males. They are also youth with drug related problems. We have a lot like them roaming everywhere along the streets of Kano Metropolis.
Marital Status of the Respondents
It can be inferred from the data that Single respondents are 81.0 per cent while married respondents are 15.5 per cent. Divorced respondents are only 3.4 per cent. This proves that youth who are single with little family burdens are involved in drug abuse than others. Single respondents are also termed as free and mobile elements. Hence, it can be speculated that maintaining a family can improve morality and responsible behaviour in individuals (all things being equal).To support the above finding, a social worker in Dorayi Rehabilitation Center
As you can see, majority of the people under rehabilitation here are single, dependent and less privilege. We, the workers take care of them with no helping hands from their families if any.
Average Monthly Income of the Respondents
The data indicates that 29.3 percent respondents possess an average monthly income of
N 4,999 and below. Only 27.6 percent respondents have between N5, 000- N 9,999 as their average monthly income. Another 22.4 percent respondents have
their average monthly income ranging between
N 10,000 – N 14,999 and respondents with income ranging between N 15,000– N 19,999 are 7.8percent. The last category with average monthly income between N 20,000 and above was 12.9 percent of the distribution. Looking at this information, it is indicated that youth with lower financial earnings engage in drug abuse more than those with higher
financial earnings in Kano Metropolis.
Educational Qualifications of the Respondents
The data reveals that Secondary school leavers are 44.8 per cent. Primary school leavers among the respondents are 31.0 percent. Respondents with post- secondary qualification are 14.7 percent, while those who had Islamic education are
9.5 per cent. By way of analysis, those youth with secondary School qualification abuse drugs more than others. This may be due to lack of higher educational certificates to secure better jobs leading to frustration there-by forcing them to deviate by engaging in drug abuse. In relation to above, a male social worker in Dorayi Rehabilitation Center stated:
During rehabilitation, we realize that majority of these inmates (who are mostly D.I.Ps 2 ) are less privilege in terms of modern education. Many had only secondary school certificates possibly because they are less privileged, and could not secure higher certificates through further studies.
The findings from the data also show that majority of the respondents believed that Lack of higher educational qualifications to secure jobs is the major reason behind the continued drug abuse behaviour among the youth. The revelation indicates that the reasons given by the respondents are many but the most influential centres on education being a vital index of a nation’s development. Political Thuggery
The result shows that majority of the respondents represented by 61.2 percent of the distribution are involved in political thuggery. The remaining 38.8
percent respondents are not involved. This indicates that as political activities
2D.I.Ps means drug induced psychosis (Those who are mentally affected as a result of drug abuse).
increase, drugs are abused by the youth to help achieve the political ambitions of their masters. Respondents indicated that involvement of most youth in politics is a reason for their involvement in drug abuse in Kano Metropolis. In this connection, an NDLEA official interviewed revealed that:
Most of the difficult times this agency faces are times of political activities, where and when drug abuse is publically rampant with no fear.
Corroborating the above, another NAFDAC officer on the frequent involvement of youth in drug abuse while government does nothing or little in eradicating this
Infact, most of these culprits (drug abusers) have the political elites as their god fathers, who in turn (political elites) disallow a proper function of the law just for personal sentiment.
Both agencies, NDLEA and NAFDAC seem to have acknowledged the problem of drug abuse among the Kano metropolitan youth especially during political activities. Similarly, a male social worker in Dorayi Rehabilitation center when interviewed
Society experiences a lot of harm and difficulties as a result of involvement of youth as political thugs in politics. Unless and if this is tackled, the public would continue to suffer these negative consequences. Of course this is so detrimental to our social, economic and political lives.
The above finding is in harmony with the finding of Odiase (1980) which indicates that “Some of the reasons that are responsible for drugs use and abuse especially among the youth include, party politics….’’ Accordingly, political thuggery in Kano Metropolis influences drug abuse among the youth.
Abuse of Drugs by Respondents Mainly for Violence
The data from this study show that 62.1percent of the respondents does not abuse drugs to perpetrate violence. Those who abuse drugs primarily for violence are 37.9 percent respondents. This indicates that drugs are not being primarily abused by the youth in Kano Metropolis for violence. Rather, it is a habitual
practice that changes an individuals’ attitude from normal to abnormal due to the influence of drugs on their body chemistry. To further explain the forgone, one of the pharmacists interviewed mentioned that:
The only necessary conditions under which a drug is taken are; when the body system possesses a problem, when physiology of the human body need to be modified, and when a medical investigation is to be carried out. Without such conditions, the drugs intake can be dangerous and may lead abnormal behaviour in individuals.
Thus, all drugs can be harmful depending on the manner they are used. A
psychiatrist in Dawanau Psychiatric Hospital when interviewed on the same issue stated:
It is possible for someone to live without a drug provided one maintains good nutritional intake, hygienic environment (free from disease vectors) safe portable drinking water, exercise and general healthy life style.
From the above therefore, with or without violence, one can lead a drug-free life, all things being equal. But, the respondents also engage in political violence. Respondents’ Engagement in Political Violence
The Table above shows that 56.0 percent of the respondents do not engage in political violence. The remaining 44.0 percent of the respondents engage in political violence. This revelation shows that at least a considerable minority of youth are involved in political violence which always destabilizes peace and harmony within the public. During the last November 2007 local government polls, one Medical Doctor in Murtala Mohammad Specialist Hospital when interviewed narrated:
Over five bodies lied dead in the accident and emergency unit of the Hospital, with some three about to pass away. All were brought on the 17th November 2007, the exact day of the election. They looked young and able-bodied.
It can be inferred then that drugs abuse among the youth triggers-off violence especially during elections which in turn engenders loss of lives and properties threatening the future of Kano and Nigeria. Youth that engage in political violence do so with the backings of their political masters. To evaluate this much, a cross-
tabulation is generated to see how income can influence involvement in political violence by the respondents.
Income and Political Violence
The Naira (
N) is Nigeria’s currency (bank note) and one US Dollar (USD $1) equivalents N 158. In the cross-tabulation, it was revealed that respondents with an average income of N 4,999 and below per month are 44.1 percent who engaged in political violence and 55.9 percent respondents with similar income level never got engaged in political violence. Respondents whose income fell between N 5,000 – N
9,999 are 43.8 percent and they engaged in political violence while 56.2 percent respondents never did. Those whose income fell between
N 10,000 – N 14,999 are
42.3 percent and are engaged in political violence, while 57.7 percent respondents were not. Respondents whose income ranged between
N 15,000 – N 19,999 are 44.4 percent and they are engaged in political violence, while 55.6 percent did not. Lastly, respondents whose income started from N 20,000 – above are 46.7 percent and were engaged in political violence while 53.3 percent respondents were not. This indicates that as the income earnings of individuals (youth) increase, they tend to withdraw from engaging in political violence. Therefore income level determines
one’s engagement in politically oriented conflicts indicating a negative relationship.
On the Respondents Benefits of Engaging in Political Violence
Since only 51 respondents engage in political violence, the data above shows that 50 percent of those respondents do benefit from money and popularity. Respondents who derive monetary benefits by engaging in political violence are 25.9 percent. The remaining 24.1percent of the respondents gained popularity by their involvement. This indicates that majority of those involved in political violence are popular and gain monetary benefits for their actions. This is attributable to money in politics with all the consequences, as youth are hired to destroy, injure or even kill. At the same time, they may go free due to political beliefs, sentiments and prejudices. This finding interprets the theoretical postulation of Rational choice (1981), which states that law-violating behaviour occurs when an offender decides
to risk breaking the law after considering both personal factors (such as the need for money, revenge, thrills, and entertainment) and situational factors ( how well a target is protected and the efficiency of the local police force).
Before choosing to commit a crime, the reasoning criminal evaluates the risks of apprehension, the seriousness of expected punishment, the potential value of the criminal enterprise, and his or her immediate need for criminal gain. Conversely, the decision to forgo crime may be based on the criminal’s perception that the economic benefits are no longer there or that the risks of apprehension is too great. Therefore, those youth engage in political violence consider the benefit as more than the risks and possible apprehension by the police in Kano Metropolis. As the whole data revealed, it can be said that political activities in Kano Metropolis is a factor that predisposes the youth to drug abuse.
On Modern Civllization or Resource Mismanagement
On the above issue, it was gathered that, 59 respondents represented by 49.2 per cent believed that drug abuse is a modern civilization. In otherwords, it came along with the new modern technological developments. On the otherhand, 61 respondents represented by 50.8 per cent of the distribution believed that drug abuse especially among the youth is resource mismanagement.
The findings from the study revealed that the number of employed respondents was61.2 per cent as against unemployed respondents who were 38.8 per cent. Also, the findings show that 36 (31.0 per cent) of the respondents had only primary school qualification. In terms of educational qualification, 44.8per cent of the respondents had secondary school qualification; while 14.7 per cent of the respondents had post-secondary school qualification (which may be NCE, Diploma, HND, Degree etc.). Only 9.5percent of the respondents had Islamic education. It is indicated that only few youth have higher education, lack of chances to further their education may be why the youth are in drug abuse.
The data from the study show that 61.2 percent of the respondents involve in Political activities as against 38.8 percent respondents who do not. Fifty six percent do not engage in political violence as against 44.0 percent who engage. The cross- tabulation between income and political violence shows that respondents within the average monthly earnings of those whose incomes fall between
N4,999 and below are 44.1percent, those with income between N 5,000 – N 9,999 are 43.8 percent, those with income between N 10,000 – 14,999 are 42.3 percent, those within N
N 19,999 are 44.4 percent, while those with income starting from N 20,000 – above are 46.7 percent. On the benefits of engaging in political violence, the data shows that 25.9 percent have only monetary benefit, 24.1 percent have popularity gain, while 50 percent respondents have monetary and popularity benefits. On this basis, political thuggery and the related activities seem to encourage drug abuse
among the youth in Kano Metropolis.
Based on the summarised data above, the study is concluded as follows:
1. Majority of the youth drug abusers are employed, although economic factorssuchas profit maximization encourages drug abuse among the youth.
2. Lack of higher educational qualifications is a factor that pushes the youth into drug abuse and subsequently to politically related crimes.
3. Similarly, political thuggery is another factor responsible for drug abuse among the youth.
Based on data generated and analysed, the following recommendations are made:
1. The use of the youth by the political elites as political thugs should be discouraged by the concerned authorities such as NDLEA and Police. This is to prevent the youth from involving in drugs to perpetuate the political activities.
2. Parents and community members should monitor the movement of their children and the company they keep to ensure that children develop and maintain acceptable relationships amongst themselves.
3. Hence, the help of religious scholars, community elders and especially the policy makers is needed in this regard.
4. The welfare of Law Enforcement Agents should be improved to reduce the problem of bribe collection by the agents. In addition, more avenues of counselling and bailing drug offenders should be provided by the NDLEA and Police.
5. Finally, the mass media and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) should involve in massive campaigns against drug abuse especially among the youth.
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Ali Ado Siro
Department of Criminology and Security Studies, Federal University, Dutse– Nigeria
Post Editor: Bappi Kabir